One of those tricks is the so-called "qualified immunity" defense.
That type of "immunity" from constitutional lawsuits is not part of the Civil Rights Act, it was added-on by the courts, in violation of the courts' Article III restricted power given to federal court by the U.S. Constitution and in usurpation of the Congress's exclusive Article I power to legislate or amend legislation.
The "qualified immunity" defense "works" this way.
- There is the U.S. Constitution.
- There is the statute enacted by U.S. Congress, 42 U.S.C. 1983, the Civil Rights Act giving you a private right to sue the government if the government violates your constitutional rights.
- The Constitution;
- The laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof (and the legislative power is given by Article I of the U.S. Constitution exclusively to the U.S. Congress and not to the courts); and
- all the treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States.